By Roger Crowley
A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in historical past and the top of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and accomplished account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in background that was once a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.
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Extra info for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West
37); principles regarding crimes and punishments (Art. 38); the right to prove an allegation (Art. 39); the right to appeal to relevant public authorities in cases of violations of constitutional rights (Art. 40). For most of these articles, however, the grounds for restriction are so severe and numerous that the 1982 Constitution was jokingly described by its critics as a “yes, but” Constitution. , Arts. 20, 21, 22, 26, 28, 33, 135). These provisions were softened by the constitutional amendment of 2001, according to which the administrative authority’s decision to suspend the exercise of a fundamental right shall be submitted to the approval of a legal judge within 24 hours and the judge shall proclaim his/her decision within 48 hours; otherwise, the measure shall automatically cease to be effective.
The hardly hidden aim of Law No. 2932 passed by the NSC regime in 1983 was to ban FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES 51 the public use of Kurdish. 13 This scandalous law was repealed in 1991, and in the constitutional revision of 2001, the phrase “languages prohibited by law” was deleted from Articles 26 and 28. Another draconian provision on the freedom of scientiﬁc and artistic activities (Art. 27) is its second paragraph, which banned the dissemination of scientiﬁc or artistic works “with the purpose of ensuring the change of Articles 1, 2, and 3 of the Constitution” (namely, its unamendable clauses).
The other is the introduction of the principle of proportionality, widely used by many European constitutional courts as well as by the ECtHR. Together with such improvements, the guarantee that restrictions shall not be in conﬂict with the requirements of the democratic social order was also maintained. Thus, the amended Article reads as follows: Fundamental rights and liberties may be restricted only by law and solely on the basis of the reasons stated in the relevant articles of the Constitution without impinging upon their essence.
1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West by Roger Crowley