By C. M. Millward, Mary Hayes
The 3rd variation of A BIOGRAPHY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE keeps to check the constitution of English, from its Indo-European pre-history, in the course of the invasions that formed outdated and heart English, via its audio system' wide awake efforts to police it within the Early smooth interval, via its present-day changes show up in city slang and text-messaging. The textbook explores 3 very important matters: how languages and language swap are systematic; how the internal heritage of a language is profoundly plagued by its outer heritage of political and culural occasions; and the way the English of the earlier has all over the place left its strains on present-day English. by means of uncovering the language's prior, you can still higher use it to speak in addition to speculate approximately its destiny use in ever-changing globalized media.
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Extra info for A Biography of the English Language - 3e
Yet it has survived intact throughout the entire history of English. Further, many changes cannot be explained either by basic communicative need or by a principle of least effort. An example is the development in Middle English of the extremely complex system of definite (the) and indefinite articles (a, an) in English, a system that is the despair of so many foreign learners of the language. Old English got along nicely with no indefinite article at all and with a form of that as both demonstrative and definite article.
Similarly, the distinctions in meaning lost through the abandonment of the now nearly extinct subjunctive mood are today made through adverbs, modal auxiliaries, and word-order changes. Change occurs at different rates and times within the subsystems of a language. A new loan word may be introduced and become widely accepted within a period of a few days, as with the Russian loan sputnik in 1957. In the twentyfirst century, electronic and wireless communication has changed the way we sometimes represent words in writing.
The uvula is the cylindrically shaped extension of the velum that hangs down over the back of the tongue; you can view it in a mirror if you open your mouth very wide. The uvula is not used in forming English sounds, but it becomes an articulator in some languages when it is made to vibrate rapidly, producing a uvular trill. ) 7. The nasal cavity is opened to the flow of air from the lungs when the velum is lowered. The resulting sounds are called nasals; the specific nature of the nasal sound depends on the position of other articulators.
A Biography of the English Language - 3e by C. M. Millward, Mary Hayes