By Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins
This quantity is a grammatical description of Bilinarra, an endangered Australian language. This paintings attracts on fabrics accrued over a 20-year interval from the final first-language audio system of the language, so much of whom have given that passed on to the great beyond. precise recognition is paid to all features of the grammar, with all examples supplied with linked sound records.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory
2 Bilinarra in relation to Gurindji and Ngarinyman Bilinarra is very closely related to Gurindji and Ngarinyman. From the perspective of linguists, these three would certainly be considered dialects of a single language. However, they are considered diﬀerent languages by the respective communities (see Dixon (1980: 33) on the diﬀerent uses of ‘language’ reﬂected here), and so we will refer to them as such throughout this discussion. Despite their similarities, there are nonetheless a number of grammatical diﬀerences that separate the languages.
The Jasper Gorge area was particularly notorious for skirmishes by Aboriginal people hiding in the rock cliﬀs. He speculates that the attacks were a part of a coordinated campaign by diﬀerent tribes to purge the area of the gardiya. Nonetheless, by 1902 the number of attacks had diminished, which Lewis (2012: 115) suggests may have been related to the decreasing numbers of Aboriginal people, who had suﬀered great losses, and the establishment of ‘blacks camps’ on the cattle stations. Indeed cattle station owners realised that Aboriginal people could provide a source of cheap labour.
On account of their contact with Europeans, by whom so many of them were employed, most of the station people found it necessary to learn a certain amount of English. (Berndt & Berndt, 1987: 59) Given this situation, it is likely that there were a number of pressures on Bilinarra. The dominant traditional languages were either related to Bilinarra, such as The socio-political and linguistic history of the Bilinarra people 25 Mudburra, or were mutually intelligible, such as Gurindji. Given this mix, it is likely that some levelling between the Ngumpin languages took place.
A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory by Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins